Hagiwara at Sony invented Pinned Photodiode in 1975

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   The most important Image Sensor Patents

   in 1975, 1977 and 2014 by Yoshiaki Hagiwara

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This is the original Hagiwara 1975 Japanese Patent Idea

   Japanese Patent Application 1975-127646

     http://www.aiplab.com/JP1975-127646.pdf

on the original N+NP+NP junction Buried Pinned Photodiode

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Note that this is the N+NP+NP junction type Buried Photodiode.

This is also a Pinned Photodiode with the surface N+ region pinned,
with the thyrisor punch thru operation for the image charge transfer
and the MOS capacitor buffer memory for Global Shutter Operation.


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This is the original Hagiwara 1975 Japanese Patent Idea

   Japanese Patent Application 1975-127647

     http://www.aiplab.com/JP1975-127647.pdf

on the original N+NP+N junction Buried Pinned Photodiode
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Note that this is the P+PN+P junction type Buried Photodiode.

This is also Pinned Photodiode with the pinned surface P+ region
with MOS Capacitor Global Shutter Memory for the image lag free
complete charge transfer operation with Back Light Illumination.

This is the original basic patent on Pinned Photodiode with
Global Shutter function needed for CMOS Image Sensors.






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This is the original Hagiwara 1975 Japanese Patent Idea

   Japanese Patent Application 1975-134985

    http://www.aiplab.com/JP1975-134985.pdf

on the original P+NPNsub junction Buried Pinned Photodiode with
the vertical overflow drain (VOD) function needed to have the
electric shutter function for filmless and chanical free cameras.

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The patent claim described above can be any of the eight structrures shown below.

The type (6) structure shown below corresponds to the figures shown above.





By 1975 the vertical overflow drain (VOD) concepts were well known.

Hagiwara proposed the vertical overflow drain (VOD) concept for the
P+NPNsub junction type Pinned Photodiode for the first time in the
world. This now became the standard structure to realize the electrical
shutter function, completely free from the mechanical shutter parts.




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This is the original Hagiwara 1975 Japanese Patent Idea
   
   Japanese Patent Application 1977-126885

    http://www.aiplab.com/JP1977-126885.pdf

on the original Mechanical-Free Electric Function Photodiode.
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Note that the electrical shutter function can be only possbile
with the bult-in VOD function capability. Also note that the
electrical shutter function can be possbile only for the MOS
Photo Capacitor and the Pinned Photodiode with the complete
charge transfer capability of the built-in image lag free feature.
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This is the most recent Hagiwara 2014 Japanese Patent Idea

   Japanese Patent Application 2014-135479
   
        http://www.aiplab.com/JP2014-135479.pdf

on 1/N sampling hold fast frequency Transfroamtion Method.
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To get the Original Japanese Patent Claims,

please visit Japanese Patent Official Web Site.

https://www.j-platpat.inpit.go.jp.






The followings are the evidence that Hagiwara invented Pinned Photodiode.

(1) Japapese Patent Application JPA 1975-127646

http://www.aiplab.com/JP1975-127646.pdf

(2) Japapese Patent Application JPA 11975-127647

http://www.aiplab.com/JP1975-127647.pdf

(3) Japapese Patent Application JPA 11975-134985

http://www.aiplab.com/JP1975-134985.pdf

(4) Japapese Patent Application JPA 11977-126885

http://www.aiplab.com/JP1977-126885.pdf






(5) SSDM_1978_Conference Paper on P+NP Pinned Photodiode

"A 380H X 488V CCD Imager with Narrow Channel Transfer Gates"
SSDM1978 Conference Paper September 1978 and Japanese Journal
of Applied Physics, Volume 18 Sup 18-1, pp.335-340 November 1979

http://www.aiplab.com/P1978_Pinned_Photodiode_1978_Paper_by_Hagiwara.pdf






(6) IEEE_EDS_Journal_1966Paper


"High Density and High Quality Frame Transfer CCD Imager with
Very Low Smear, Low Dark Current and Very High Blue Sensitivity",
IEEE Transaction on Electron Devices, Vol 43, no. 12, December 1996

http://www.aiplab.com/P1996_Pinned_Photodidoe_used_in_Sony_1980_FT_CCD_Image_Sensor.pdf





(7) IEEE_3DIC2019_Conference_Paper

"Multichip CMOS Image Sensor Structure for Flash Image Acquisition"
IEEE International 3D Systems Integration Conference 2019 (3DIC2019)
Digest of Technical Papers, Sendai, Japan, Paper4017, October 2019

http://www.aiplab.com/P2019_3DIC2019Paper_on_3D_Pinned_Photodiode.pdf




(8) IEEE_EDS_EDTM2020_Paper


"Simulation and Device Characterization of the P+PN+P Junction Type
Pinned Photodiode and Schottky Barrier Photodiode"
IEEE Electron Device and Manufacturing Technology Conference (EDTM2020),
Digest of Technical Papers, Penang Malaysia, Paper ID 3D6, March 2020


http://www.aiplab.com/P2020_EDTM2020_PaperID_3C4_by_Hagiwara.pdf









Pinned Photodiode type solar cell proposed below can have
Completely depleted N region.

If the width Wd is made narrow enough so that we have

Wd < sqrt { 8 *
EG *εsi ) * (Na Nd ) / ( Na + Nd ) }


then we would have the minimum potential value Vm
of the empty N well would be about 0.88 eV , which
is less than the silicon enegy gap of Eg = 1.1 eV
as expected in the above figure of the simulation result.

The ideal width Wd would be about 20 ~30 μm so that
we can exclude the infrared light of the wave length
which is greater than the limit wave length λo given
as λo = 1.24 μm / Eg = 1.127 μm. Any infrared
light with the longer wave length cannot be converted
to the electrical energy in the silicon solar cells.

It must be reflected by the back metal mirror to the
outside of the incoming silicon wafer surface so that
it may not be converted to heat inisde silicon wafer
because we need to keep cooling the siliocon solar cell.
The higher the PN junction temperature, the PN junction
leakage current will be increased.

The silicon solar cell must be kept cool.





Pinned Photodiode type solar cell proposed below can have
intrinsic or super lightly doped N type starting silicon wafer.



This Pinned Photodiode type solar cell shown above was hinted by the original
Power Bipolar Transistor invented and developped by Kawana at Sony.





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Hagiwara at Sony invented Pinned Photodiode in 1975
index000_Invention_of_Pinned_Photodiode_in_1975.html
index001_Image_Sensor_1975_1977_and_2014_Patents.html
index002_Facts_on_Invention_of_Pinned_Photodiode.html
index003_Hagiwara_Publication_List.html
index004_My_Wonderful_Memory_Pictures.html
index005_Image_Sensor_Story_by_Hagiwara.html
index006_Slide_Sony_Atsugi_Tech_2020_07_10.html
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Yoshiaki Hagiwara wrote a book on
"the World of Artificial Intelligent Digital Circuits",
which is important and needed to built
the intelligent image sensor systems.

ISBM978-4-88359-339-2
Hard Cover, 460 page,
\ 9000 Japanese Yen + tax

If you are interestied in the book, Please visit

https://www.seizansha.co.jp/ISBN/ISBN978-4-88359-339-2.html

https://www.seizasha.co.jp/






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